1. Study suggests poor understanding of ratios leads to bad shopping decisions

    June 12, 2017 by Ashley

    From the University of Miami press release:

    Consumers make poor purchase decisions when they need to work with ratios to assess a product’s value, says a new study published in the May 2017 of the Journal of Marketing Behavior, from the University of Miami School of Business Administration. In situations where consumers must average ratio information, such as comparing the fuel efficiency of two cars using the ratio miles per gallon, they often flub the numbers by incorrectly assuming the mathematic equation to find miles per gallon would be to average the sum of the mileage of both cars and then divide by two, instead of using a more complex equation needed to accurately compare ratios. This incorrect way of crunching the numbers leads to only 25-30 percent of shoppers getting the correct answer.

    “People rely heavily on the ‘normal’ way to compute an average and if they simply had ready access to software that calculates the average of ratios, they could make more informed decisions about many big-ticket purchases, such as cars,” said Michael Tsiros, professor of marketing at the University of Miami School of Business Administration. “If you think about how many different ways we miscalculate the average of ratios, you’d realize how much of an impact this likely has on our stock purchase decisions that can also suffer from the same bias given they can also be compared as ratios,” said Tsiros, who conducted the study with a colleague from Texas A&M University.

    Methodology

    The researchers conducted two studies to demonstrate consumers’ difficulty in dealing with ratios. In the first study, participants were assigned word problems that, in order to arrive at the correct answer, required them to use the formula for averaging ratios. The majority, 53 percent of the participants selected the response that reflected the arithmetic average vs. the average of ratios. In the second study, participants received information on the cash ?ow, discount rate, and growth rate of three stocks and were asked to allocate $1,000 across them. Similar to the first study, 48 percent of participants’ selections reflected the incorrect use of the arithmetic average formula.

    “Whether the decision is about allocating funds properly to a 401K plan or finding a washer and dryer that uses a lower ratio of water per load, this study points to the significant need for something like a ratio calculator built on to relevant shopping websites or perhaps in-store,” continued Tsiros. “Maybe it’s an easy mobile app. Whatever it may be, the return that comes with going the extra mile for your customer, especially those making big-ticket purchases, is a smart business decision.”


  2. Linguistic style is key to crowdfunding success

    June 10, 2017 by Ashley

    From the University of Illinois at Chicago press release:

    In one of the first crowdfunding studies focusing on social enterprises, researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have found that how a pitch is voiced and worded is much more important for social entrepreneurs than for their commercial counterparts.

    The researchers examined 656 Kickstarter campaigns from 2013 and 2014. They found that linguistic styles that made the campaigns and their founders more understandable and relatable to the crowd boosted the exposure and success of social campaigns — but hardly mattered for commercial enterprises.

    Research on what makes a crowdfunding projects successful has mostly focused on content, or what one says, and “ignored linguistic style, or how one speaks,” says Annaleena Parhankangas, assistant professor of managerial studies in the UIC College of Business Administration, who led the study.

    “Here, we show that the persuasiveness of entrepreneurs’ stylistic expressions is dependent on their category membership — that is, whether they are social or commercial entrepreneurs.”

    Short, easily understood and compelling stories, particularly when designing crowdfunding “pitches,” or videos, are effective for campaigns addressing social good. However, these styles matter less for campaigns serving consumer markets, the study found.

    Parhankangas said social entrepreneurs “also need to build personal rapport with the audience, by sharing personal experiences and using a highly interactive style,” such as asking a series of questions rather than presenting statements. For commercial entrepreneurs, style does not matter as much, and content is likely to be enough to persuade their audience to invest.

    Parhankangas said the popularity of crowdfunding for entrepreneurial fundraising is growing fast. Social entrepreneurs in particular are finding it to be an important method of funding, as more traditional means of financing have proven inadequate. About 1,250 active crowdfunding platforms worldwide raised about $16.2 billion for companies and causes in 2014, according to the Massolution 2015 Crowdfunding Industry Report.

    “Early-stage entrepreneurs are increasingly involved in the theatrical pitching of their projects to various audiences at forums, such as accelerator demo days, pitch mixers, competitions, and online crowdfunding sites,” she said. “How they deliver the message matters — and, as a result, it is important to study how entrepreneurs’ language use affects their chances of raising funding.”

    An interesting avenue for future research would be to investigate professional investors’ sensitivity to linguistic styles in crowdfunding pitches, Parhankangas said.


  3. Study examines effect of tobacco ads on susceptibility to tobacco use among youth

    June 2, 2017 by Ashley

    From the University of California – San Diego press release:

    Among 12- to 17-year-olds who have never used tobacco products, nearly half were considered receptive to tobacco marketing if they were able to recall or liked at least one advertisement, report a coalition of behavioral scientists in a new national study. Receptivity to tobacco ads is associated with an increased susceptibility to smoking cigarettes in the future.

    Led by researchers at University of California San Diego Moores Cancer Center and Dartmouth’s Norris Cotton Cancer Center, the researchers analyzed data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, which included interviews with 10,751 adolescents who reported having never used any type of tobacco product. Risk to use a tobacco product in the future was the researchers’ main point of interest. The findings are published in the May 22 issue of Pediatrics.

    “Tobacco marketing restrictions differ by product with only e-cigarettes allowed to be advertised on television,” said John P. Pierce, PhD, Professor Emeritus in the Department of Family Medicine and Public Health at UC San Diego School of Medicine and Moores Cancer Center and lead author on the study. “Previous studies have linked receptivity to cigarette advertising with susceptibility to smoke cigarettes among youth. What we’re seeing in this study is that even being receptive to marketing of non-cigarette tobacco products, including e-cigarettes, is associated with susceptibility to smoke cigarettes.”

    In this analysis of the first wave of data from the PATH Study, respondents were considered susceptible to tobacco or committed to never using these products based on responses to three questions assessing their curiosity about the product, intention to try it in the near future, and likely response if a best friend were to offer them the product. Only those with the strongest rejection to all three questions were categorized as committed to never use. All others were susceptible. This index has been validated in multiple studies.

    Participants were shown 20 tobacco ads chosen randomly from 959 ads representing all available recent commercials used in print, direct mail, internet or television advertisements. Each respondent was asked initially to name his or her favorite tobacco ad and then shown a random set of five ads for each of the following products: cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars and smokeless products. For each ad presented, they were asked if they had seen the ad in the past 12 months and whether they liked the ad. Aided recall was classified as low receptivity while image-liking or favorite ad was considered to be higher.

    A high proportion of under-aged adolescents in the United States are still exposed to tobacco advertising. The study found that 41 percent of 12- to 13-year-olds, and about half of both 14- to 15-year-olds and 16- to 17-year-olds were receptive to any type of tobacco advertising.

    “Six of the top 10 most recognized tobacco ads by adolescents were for e-cigarettes, four of which were aired on TV,” said James Sargent, MD, director of the C. Everett Koop Institute at Dartmouth and co-author. “The PATH Study will continue to track these adolescents who have not used tobacco and will be able to identify if receptivity to marketing for different tobacco products during wave 1 of the study — particularly e-cigarette marketing — increases cigarette smoking one or two years later.”

    Receptivity to advertising was highest for e-cigarettes with 28 to 33 percent across age groups, followed by 22 to 25 percent for cigarettes and 15 to 21 percent for cigars. E-cigarette advertising is of interest to researchers because of its presence on television and because showing people vaping is very similar to showing people smoking, said Pierce.

    The proportion who were susceptible to using tobacco products increased with the level of receptivity. Fifty percent of respondents considered to have low receptivity, 65 percent who were moderately receptive and 87 percent of youth who were deemed highly receptive were susceptible to use tobacco products.

    “Cigarette smoking is still a major problem and a major cause of lung cancer and other diseases,” said Pierce. “We’ve had big declines in the number of people who initiated smoking, but it is important that we maintain that reduction.”


  4. Consumers see much greater risk than reward in online ads

    May 29, 2017 by Ashley

    From the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign press release:

    Personalized ads now follow us around the web, their content drawn from tracking our online activity. The ad industry has suggested we’re OK with it — that we see benefits roughly equal to perceived risks.

    A study by University of Illinois advertising professor Chang-Dae Ham says otherwise, suggesting the industry may want to reconsider its approach.

    The perception of risk is much stronger than the perception of benefit,” Ham found in surveying 442 college students on how they coped with what is known as online behavioral advertising. “That drives them to perceive more privacy concern, and finally to avoid the advertising,” he said.

    The study appears in the May issue of the International Journal of Advertising.

    Previous studies have looked at various aspects of OBA, but Ham said his is the first to investigate the interaction of various psychological factors — or mediating variables — behind how people respond to it and why they might avoid ads.

    “The response to OBA is very complicated,” he said. “The ad avoidance is not explained just by one or two factors; I’m arguing here that five or six factors are influencing together.”

    Ham examined not only interactions related to risk, benefit and privacy, but also self-efficacy (sense of control); reactance (reaction against perceived restrictions on freedom); and the perceived personalization of the ads.

    He also looked at the effect of greater and lesser knowledge among participants about how online behavioral advertising works. Those with greater perceived knowledge were likely to see greater benefits, but also greater risk, he found. Similar to those with little perceived understanding, they tilted strongly toward privacy concerns and avoiding ads.

    Ham’s study of online behavioral advertising follows from his interest in all forms of hidden persuasion, and his previous research has looked at product placement, user-generated YouTube videos and advergames. But OBA is “a very special type,” he said, in that it elicits risk perceptions and privacy concerns different from those in response to those other forms.

    The study conclusions could have added significance, Ham said, because research has shown that college-age individuals, like those in his study pool, are generally less concerned about privacy than those in older age groups.

    If his findings are an accurate reflection of consumer attitudes, Ham said they could represent “a really huge challenge to the advertising industry” since online behavioral advertising represents a growing segment of advertising revenue.

    Ham thinks advertisers, in their own interest, may want to make the process more transparent and controllable. “They need to educate consumers, they need to clearly disclose how they track consumers’ behavior and how they deliver more-relevant ad messages to them,” he said.

    Giving consumers control is important because it might keep them open to some personalized online advertising, rather than installing tools like ad blockers, in use by almost 30 percent of online users in the U.S., he said.

    With little understanding of online behavioral advertising, and no easy way to control it, “they feel a higher fear level than required, so they just block everything.”

    It’s all the more important because the technology is only getting better and more accurate, Ham said. Tracking systems “can even infer where I’m supposed to visit tomorrow, where I haven’t visited yet.”


  5. We buy what we grasp: How our hands lead us to choose certain products

    May 23, 2017 by Ashley

    From the Bocconi University press release:

    The things we touch while shopping can affect what we buy, according to studies by Bocconi Department of Marketing’s Zachary Estes and University of Innsbruck’s Mathias Streicher.

    In “Touch and Go: Merely Grasping a Product Facilitates Brand Perception and Choice,” published in Applied Cognitive Psychology, they conduct a series of experiments and show that blindfolded people induced to grasp familiar products (a bottle of Coke, for example) under the guise of a weight judgement task are then quicker in recognizing the brand name of the product when it slowly appears on a screen, include more frequently the product in a list of brands of the same category, and choose more often that product among others as a reward for having participated in the experiment.

    The authors suggest that tactile exposure to the object “activated the conceptual representation of that object, which then facilitated subsequent processing of the given object.

    In “Multisensory Interaction in Product Choice: Grasping a Product Affects Choice of Other Seen Products,” published in Journal of Consumer Psychology, via another series of experiments, Estes and Streicher demonstrate that grasping an object can facilitate visual processing and choice of other seen products of the same shape and size. “For instance,” explains Estes, “when you’re holding your mobile phone in your hand, you may be more likely to choose a KitKat than a Snickers, because the KitKat is shaped more like your phone. What we find is that consumers are significantly more likely to choose the product that is similar to the shape of whatever is in their hand. For instance, when confronted with a choice between a bottle of Coke and a can of Red Bull, participants who held a bottle of Fanta were more likely to choose a bottle of Coke, but those who held a can of Fanta more often chose the can of Red Bull. These studies show that our hands can lead us to choose certain products.”

    However, there are two caveats to this effect, one situational and one personal. The situational constraint has to do with visual density. That is, some product arrays are very sparse, with plenty of space between the products, whereas others are very dense, with many products placed right next to one another. It turns out that when the visual array is overcrowded the hands have an even larger influence on product choice. “As visual perception becomes less reliable,” the authors write, “tactile perception assumes a greater role in the recognition of object shape.”

    The second constraint is more personal: it depends on one’s “need for touch,” or how much people like to touch products while shopping. Some people really like to pick products up and feel them, and others don’t. As expected, the scholars find that the hands have much more influence on product choice among those consumers who really like to handle products.

    “These results have direct implications for product and package designers and marketing managers,” Estes concludes. “For one thing, distinctive product shapes like Coca-Cola’s iconic bottle design can provide a powerful source of brand identity and recognition. Second, consumers tend to choose products that are shaped like the things they often hold, like a mobile phone, a wallet, or a computer mouse when shopping online. Product designers could create packages that mimic those commonly held forms, and marketing managers can accentuate this effect of product touch by placing several products near one another, and by encouraging consumers to touch the products on display.”


  6. International study suggests social media behaviour is influenced by culture

    May 18, 2017 by Ashley

    From the University of Vaasa press release:

    Even though we think ourselves as global citizens, we still differ in terms of how we behave online and what motivates our behavior online. A new doctoral study in the field of international marketing by Agnieszka Chwialkowska from the University of Vaasa, Finland, reveals that the cultural values and practices are still very much influencing the way consumers use different social media platforms when engaging with their favourite companies.

    Chwialkowska has compared social media sharing, liking, commenting and tagging in Finland, Poland and United States.

    “The consumers in the United States use company social media content to express themselves and enhance their image, whereas Finnish and Polish customers engage with company content that helps them keep in touch with their friends, and thus mainly share content that will benefit their connections,” says Agnieszka Chwialkowska.

    The consumers in Finland, Poland and the United States differed also in their engagement methods. While Finns and Poles were merely just clicking “like” and “share,” the U.S. respondents were also tagging and commenting. All in all, the U.S. consumers were engaging with company social media content more frequently than respondents in the other two countries.

    The age does not matter

    Chwialkowska studied both young generation of social media users and working professionals and debunked the myth that older consumers use social media differently. Her research shows that while users above 30 years old use social media less frequently, spent less time there, and have generally less online connections than young adolescents, the key motivations underlying their online behaviors remain the same.

    Chwialkowska’s research offers many implications for companies present on social media. Knowing users’ motivations helps them better understand their responses to marketing communication and design the content that consumers will be willing to share with their online friends.


  7. To sell more healthy food, keep it simple

    May 17, 2017 by Ashley

    From the Journal of Retailing at New York University press release:

    Despite extensive research on how to persuade consumers to improve their diets, academicians have largely failed to present food retailers with easy-to-use suggestions. Brian Wansink, director of Cornell’s Food and Brand Lab and a leading expert in changing eating behavior, seeks to change this by providing an organizing framework that integrates insights from marketing, nutrition, psychology, public health, and behavioral economics research to suggest dozens of small, low-cost, in-store changes that retailers can use to boost sales of fish versus hamburger and apples instead of candy bars.

    In “Healthy Profits: An Interdisciplinary Retail Framework that Increases the Sales of Healthy Foods,” to be published in the June 2017 issue of the Journal of Retailing, Wansink sketches out a health predisposition pyramid – in essence, a hierarchy that places health-vigilant shoppers at the top and health-disinterested shoppers at the base, with so-called health-predisposed shoppers in the middle. He points out that different marketing interventions are more or less successful with each of these groups. For instance, research has shown that shoppers who are most interested in healthy eating are more interested than health-disinterested shoppers in recipe kiosks that might suggest ways to cook fish, whereas candy-free checkout aisles and front-of-store fruit displays attract all categories of shoppers.

    Where, how, and when retailers can best influence shoppers are all areas that call for more research, Wansink points out, and at the same time, the studies that have been done, while providing valuable insights, form no cohesive, actionable plan for retailers. Wansink advocates a comprehensive approach that focuses on making the selection of healthy foods convenient, attractive, and normal (CAN) and provides a retail intervention matrix that organizes key research findings into a sensible pattern that is easy to understand and practical to implement.

    The intervention matrix was put to work in Norway by a large grocery chain seeking to reposition itself around environmentally sustainable fish. All 457 stores in the chain used the traditional marketing mix of altering the variety, packaging, advertising, and price promotions of fish. Over a two-year period, these efforts consistently increased sales by 9 percent. Subsequently, 239 stores added strategies from the intervention matrix; the average increase was 28 percent more fish per transaction than in the first group of stores. “This example shows one way research findings can be extrapolated, organized, and presented in a way that is compelling for managers who have little time or tolerance for ambiguity and nuance,” says Wansink.


  8. Study suggests food brand awareness ups risk of obesity in preschoolers

    May 7, 2017 by Ashley

    From the University of Michigan press release:

    Young children who recognize food name brands, such as Lucky Charms, M&M’s and Cheetos, often eat unhealthy items that lead to their high body mass index.

    The risk of this weight gain, according to a new University of Michigan study, occurs independently of other variables, including family demographics or TV viewing.

    The findings also indicate that children often struggle with recalling details about food brands by misidentifying components with mascots and other fantasy characters that they are exposed to during the preschool years.

    U-M researchers sought to determine if food brand recognition alone has any relevance for preschooler weight status, and if family and other variables are the primary sources of being overweight.

    The sample of 247 preschoolers, whose average age was 4.5 years, were measured for BMI and completed recognition and recall indicators for a selection of 30 U.S. food brands.

    The most recognized among the brands was Pepperidge Farm Goldfish (96 percent). Since there were three choices of foods to match with each brand logo, the children could get the answer right one-third of the time just by guessing. Even the least recognized brand (SpaghettiOs) was recognized 41 percent of the time, which was significantly greater than the chance rate.

    The study showed that overweight children recognized 10 food items more often than healthy-weight children: M&M’s, Cocoa Puffs, Keebler cookies, Pringles potato chips, Rice Krispies, Cap’n Crunch, Coca-Cola, Planter’s peanuts, KFC and Hamburger Helper.

    McDonald’s registered the highest recall percentage (62 percent) among overweight children.

    “It is interesting that despite very low recall rates for some foods, recognition rates were still high,” said Kristen Harrison, U-M professor of communication studies and the study’s lead author.

    For example, the Keebler logo was recognized as matching with cookies (as opposed to potato chips or pretzels) by 86 percent of the kids surveyed, but only 1 percent were able to name the brand. On the other hand, recall percentages for other brands (such as McDonald’s, M&M’s and Pepperidge Farm Goldfish) were relatively high, but still lower than their corresponding recognition rates.

    Parent BMI (higher), child race/ethnicity and child vocabulary percentile (lower) were all significantly associated with higher child BMI percentile. Controlling these variables, none of the family behavior variables significantly”).

    Misattribution of brands often occurred among the children. Lucky Charms were called “Cheerios with candy,” M&M’s were called Skittles, Coca-Cola was called Dr. Pepper’, McDonald’s was called “Old McDonald’s,” the Pringles logo was called “Mustache Guy,” Quaker oatmeal “Hatman Oatmeal,” and Cap’n Crunch was identified as both “Captain America” and “Chaplain Crunch.”

    The study’s other researchers were Jessica Moorman, Mericarmen Peralta and Kally Fayhee. The findings appear in the July issue of Appetite.


  9. Study suggests standardized cigarette packaging may reduce the number of people who smoke

    May 3, 2017 by Ashley

    From the Wiley press release:

    A Cochrane Review published today finds standardized tobacco packaging may lead to a reduction in smoking prevalence and reduces the appeal of tobacco.

    According to the World Health Organization, tobacco use kills more people worldwide than any other preventable cause of death. Global health experts believe the best way to reduce tobacco use is by stopping people starting to use tobacco, and encouraging and helping existing users to stop.

    The introduction of standardized (or ‘plain’) packaging was recommended by the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) guidelines. This recommendation was based on evidence around tobacco promotion in general and studies which examined the impact of changes in packaging on knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviour. Standardized tobacco packaging places restrictions on the appearance of tobacco packs so that there is a uniform colour (and in some cases shape), with no logos or branding apart from health warnings and other government-mandated information; the brand name appears in a prescribed uniform font, colour, and size.

    A number of countries have implemented, or are in the process of implementing, standardized tobacco packaging. Australia was the first country in the world to implement standardized packaging of tobacco products. The laws, which took full effect there in December 2012, also required enlarged pictorial health warnings.

    A team of Cochrane researchers from the UK and Canada have summarized results from studies that examine the impact of standardized packaging on tobacco attitudes and behaviour. They have published their findings in the Cochrane Library.

    They found 51 studies that looked at standardized packaging. The studies differed in the way they were done and also what they measured. Only one country had implemented standardized packaging at the time of this review, so evidence that tobacco use prevalence may have decreased following standardized packaging comes from one large observational study. A reduction in smoking behaviour is supported by routinely collected data from the Australian government. There are data from a range of other studies to indicate that appeal is lower with standardized packaging and this may help to explain the observed decline in prevalence. Researchers did not find any evidence suggesting that standardized packaging may increase tobacco use. No studies directly measured whether standardized packs influence uptake, cessation or whether they prevent former smokers from taking up smoking again.

    The amount of evidence for standardized packaging has increased markedly since the publication of the WHO guidelines in 2008. However, given its recency, there are no data on long-term impact. The amount of evidence will continue to expand as more countries implement standardized packaging and as studies assessing the longer-term effects of the Australian policy become available.

    Cochrane lead author, and Deputy Director of the UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies, Professor Ann McNeill from King’s College London, said, “Evaluating the impact of standardized packaging on smoking behaviour is difficult to do; but the evidence available to us, whilst limited at this time, indicates that standardized packaging may reduce smoking prevalence. These findings are supported by evidence from a variety of other studies that have shown that standardized packaging reduces the promotional appeal of tobacco packs, in line with the regulatory objectives set. It would appear that the impact of standardized packaging may be affected by the detail of the regulations such as whether they ban descriptors, such as ‘smooth’ or ‘gold’, and control the shape of the tobacco pack.”

    Co-author Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, from the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group, Oxford, UK, added: “Our evidence suggests that standardized packaging can change attitudes and beliefs about smoking, and the evidence we have so far suggests that standardized packaging may reduce smoking prevalence and increase quit attempts. We didn’t find any studies on whether changing tobacco packaging affects the number of young people starting to smoke, and we look forward to further research on this topic.”


  10. Study looks at how consumers choose produce

    April 17, 2017 by Ashley

    From the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences press release:

    Consumers want produce that tickles their taste buds and is easy on the eye, but they think quality fruits and vegetables are a matter of luck, according to University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences researchers.

    The fact that consumers purchase produce to satisfy their senses — not necessarily for its nutrients — should prove particularly important for growers and grocers to understand, UF/IFAS researchers say.

    “They choose based on aroma and appearance,” said Amy Simonne, a professor in the UF/IFAS family, youth and community sciences department and lead author of this research. “Consumers might want to change the way they choose fruit.”

    Jeff Brecht, a UF/IFAS professor of horticultural sciences and a study co-author, said the appearance of produce does not always correlate well with its flavor or aroma.

    Researchers suggest examining produce carefully before purchasing, including thoroughly reading packaging labels. They also recommend using your nose: Fruits that smell great will likely also taste great.

    Consumers like their fruits to be sweet and juicy, and they’re satisfied with the produce they buy, the national survey showed. In general, the 1,220 consumers surveyed think the flavor quality of their produce is a matter of “the luck of the draw,” Brecht said. That’s hardly the case.

    UF/IFAS breeders work with food scientists to find the genes that give fruits and vegetables the finest taste and smell traits. Then the breeders use those genes for traditional breeding of produce that tastes and smells better. Other traits make the produce more resistant to diseases and pests. Still other genes help the produce stay fresh while it’s transported to market and then waits to be bought at the grocery store.

    Fruits and vegetables are packed with vitamins and other nutrients, but most people don’t eat the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s recommended amount of fruits and vegetables. Consumers may not buy as many fruits and vegetables based on sub-par quality, an issue that can be complicated by many factors, including variety, production and postharvest handling, UF/IFAS researchers said. Another barrier can be high cost.

    So UF/IFAS researchers are trying to find ways to get people to buy more nutritious food, including helping them choose great tasting produce.

    Among other survey findings:

    • Out of the six commodities listed in the survey, consumers bought strawberries the most, followed by tomatoes.
    • 30.9 percent of respondents mentioned appearance as most important, followed by price at 28 percent.
    • Some consumers said they would pay up to 25 cents more per pound for better-tasting fruit, the survey showed. But grocers say most consumers will not pay more for better-tasting fruit, Brecht said.
    • Consumers do not like fruits that lack flavor, are not ripe or have bruises.

    Results of the survey can help the produce industry focus on improving taste by optimizing quality, which may help increase consumption and decrease food waste, researchers said.